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Science behind Surgical Gowns: An Overview
#1
An overview of the various parameters to consider for producing 

surgical gowns 

beginning with raw materials, methods of sterilisation to 

building parameters and more.  

    

Surgical gowns used by medical professionals are essential 

protective equipment for securing one's health from various 

pathogens such as bacteria, viruses. If the pores of the 

garments are less than the size of the microbes, micro-organisms 

cannot pass through it. For producing garments, manufacturers 

have to be concerned about the specification, comfort and cost 

of the products. It is really difficult to incorporate each 

criterion. But manufacturers always try to develop their methods 

depending on global response. This article discusses 

classification of the surgical gowns based on fabric types and 

factors considered for their production process.


    
Classification on the basis of fabrics
According to fabric types, surgical gowns can be classified into 

three types:
Cotton/cotton-polyester: These are traditional fabrics having 

large pore sizes through which micro-organisms can easily pass 

leading to poor barrier effects. For providing better barrier 

quality, tightly woven fabrics should be blended with polyester 

and long staple cotton and treated with liquid repellent 

fluorocarbons. These kinds of fabrics are reusable but need to 

be applied by a repellent finishing agent for enhancing the 

barrier effects as it reduces after each wash.


Microfilament fabrics: These are tightly woven fabrics just like 

cotton/cotton-polyester, yet they are made from very fine 

filaments. They are subjected to hydrophobic agent during the 

reprocessing process.


Multilayer fabrics: Multiple layers are used for achieving 

desirable objectives here. For example, outer layers are 

designed to resist abrasion and puncture, middle layers ensure 

resistance of fluid penetration and bottom layers provide 

comfort to users.


According to usage purposes, the gowns can be divided into two 

ways, like medical face mask:


Disposable type surgical gowns: These types of 

surgical 

gown
s used for one-time purpose, are made by nonwoven 

techniques. In the US, disposable surgical gowns and drapes 

dominate around 90 per cent of the market place For this single 

use product, manufacturers sterilise the product and pass it on 

to the users. In this way, it is more comfortable to the users 

and the barrier quality is also good. But as it is used only a 

single time, it increases environmental hazard and cost of the 

products.


Reusable types surgical gowns: Reusable gowns made from woven 

fabrics are used multiple times. It ensures lower clinical 

wastage and has cost benefits. But it is difficult to maintain a 

good barrier life for these gowns on account of continuous 

recycling process which makes it unsafe after a point of time.


Factors Considered for Production Process
There are various parameters involved in 

surgical gown disposable production such 

as raw materials, methods of sterilisation, building 

parameters. 


Raw Materials: Different types of fibre can be used as raw 

material but polyester dominates the most because of its 

availability, comfort, barrier and costs.


Building Parameters: Besides nonwoven fabrics, plain and twill 

structure can be used in surgical gowns and 

face mask

. Nowadays, researchers suggest using plain weave instead 

of twill weave as twill weave contains large pores between cross 

points.


Methods of sterilisation: Sterilisation methods are applied to 

fabrics used in surgical textiles for preventing them from 

catching infections. There are four types of sterilisation 

methods which exist worldwide. They are gas, irradiation, steam 

autoclave and dry heat. First two types are low temperature 

methods used for disposable types of sterile 

surgical gown
s and the last two types are related to high 

temperature method used for reusable surgical gowns with 

surgical 

pack
. Steam autoclave is widely used because it is 

effective, safe and inexpensive but it is not suitable for heat 

and moisture sensitive fabrics. Ethylene oxide (Eto) is more 

suitable for this method but it produces toxic and long cycles. 

Thus we can consider two common methods as an alternative to the 

other methods - Steris System and the Sterrad system.


Steris System: It is a microprocessor controlled low temperature 

sterilisation method that has rapid cycle times of approximately 

30 minutes. The ecofriendly by-products sterilant flows through 

a flexible endoscope that facilities salt, protein, and microbe 

removal. But a small number of instruments are processed in a 

cycle.


Sterrad System: The sterilisation system may use the combination 

of hydrogen peroxide and low temperature gas plasma with 

temperature ranges from 45oc to 50 oc and operation time cycles 

time varying from 45 to 70 minutes. Hydrogen peroxide is known 

as an antimicrobial agent. Free radicals of hydrogen peroxide 

interact with the cell membrane, nucleic acid, or enzymes to 

break the life function of micro-organism. This has a small 

sterilisation chamber of about 3-5 ft3.


About the Author: Mehedi Hasan Chaion is an undergraduate 

student of the Department of Textile Engineering at Jashore 

University of Science and Technology (JUST), Jashore, 

Bangladesh.


References:
(Behera & Arora, 2009) (McCarthy, 2011) (Rutala & Weber, 1999) 

Behera, B. K., & Arora, H. (2009). Surgical Gown: A Critical 

Review. Journal of Industrial Textiles, 38(3), 205-231. 

https://doi.org/10.1177/1528083708091251


McCarthy, B. J. (Ed.). (2011). Textiles for hygiene and 

infection control. Oxford: Woodhead Publ. [u.a.].
Rutala, WA, & Weber, D. J. (1999). Infection control: The role 

of disinfection and sterilization. Journal of Hospital 

Infection, 43, S43-S55. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0195-6701(99)

90065-8
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